SECTION A (30MARKS )
- Rinder pest
- Foot and Mouth disease
- Mad cow disease (½ x 3 = 1½ marks)
- a) Spoke shave is used to finish or smoothen curved surfaces (½ mark)
b) Plumb bob-used for checking the verticalness of a wall. (½ mark)
- White in colour ,with black ears , nose, paws or tail. (1mark)
- – poor health
- Old age
- Physical deformities
- Hereditary defects
- Infertility/loss of libido (½ x4 = 2marks)
- Brings loss of hybrid vigour
- May lead to decline in fertility which lead to species extinction
- Brings about reduction in performance
- Leads to high rate of pre-natal mortality
-abortions (½ x2 = 1mark)
- Make it resistance to redant attack and weather elements
- Make it resistance to damage
- Prevent warping (½ x2 = 1mark)
- a) a roughage is a feed stuff with a high fibre and carbohydrates content and low in protein while a concentrate is a feed with high amount of protein or energy (carbohydrates) and crude fibre.
(award 1 mk and mark as a whole )
b) –it must be balanced /rich in nutrients required
– Must be enough for the animal to produce at an economical level.
– Must palatable
– free from contaminants (4x ½ = 2mks)
- – Depend on
- species of the animal
- the breed animal
- age of animal
- physiological status of animal
- temperatures of the environment
- type of feed eaten
- weight of animal/body size ( 3x ½ = 1½ mks)
- To produce high quality milk
- To have a long lifespan and breed regularly
- To make it fetch high market values.
- To reduce managements cost/make it economical to keep/reduce veterinary bills
- Prevent spread of disease such as these which are zoonotic (½ x 3 = 1 ½ mks)
- To prevent fighting and inflicting injuries on each other
- To make the animal docile and easy to handle
- Make it easy during transportation and feeding because it reduce space the animal occupies .
- Prevent destruction of farm structure
(½ x3 = 1½ mks)
- Heat method
- Crushing and straining
- Use of centrifugal extractor
(½ x2 = 1mk)
- a) -To check fertility of the egg
-To check egg abnormalities
-To determine condition of the embryo
-To check quality of the shell
-To determine the size of air space (2 x1 = 2mks)
b) Clean plough after days work use
- tighten loose nuts and bolts
- lubricate moving parts
- replace broken or worn out parts
- repair broken parts
- sharpen the sharee when necessary
- paint the metallic points to avoid rust
- Apply old engine oil on the plough for long storage
(4 x ½ = 2mks)
- a) Retard growth of animals
- leads to malnutrition /emaciation
- lower production
- damages to the organs/blindness
- blockage or organs/blindness
- irritation coughing
- cause anaemia
- lead to death
(4 x ½ = 2mks)
b) (i) – to remove dirt /kill bacteria
– To stimulate milk let down =
( ½ x 2 = 1mk)
- british alpine/ German Alphine
- Anglo –nubian
(3 x ½ = 1½ mk)
Milk fever (½ x 2 = 1mk)
- A channel used to allow excess water back to the river/ it prevents water from overflowing on the dykes. ½ mk
- – splash feed type
- Force feed type
- Oil mist type
(½ x 3 = 1 ½ mks)
- a) land side-presses against the wall of the furrow hence prevent the plough from swaying sideways during/provide stability to the plough during ploughing. (½ mk)
b) Draft rod
– used for adjusting the depth and width of ploughing. ( ½ mk)
- should have properly constructed roof to protect the grains crop from the sun and rain.
- Wall should be plastered with mortar or mud to make them smooth and air light.
- Should be completely sealed t avoid entry of rodents.
- An inlet and outlets be made of tight covers and should be easy to lock.
(½ x3 = ½ mks)
19.Advantages of natural feeding in calf rearing.
•Calf takes milk at body temperature,
•Milk is free from contamination
• it prevents scouring in calves.
•Milk is provided ad libitum. (3 x ½ = 1 ½ marks)
20. (a) N – abomasum
P – Rumen
Q – Gall bladder (3 x ½ = 1 /2marks)
(b. ) S — Digestion/absorption of food
T-— Absorption of water. (2 x 1 = 2 marks)
(c) R— Lipase/Trypsin/amyIase
S — Peptidase/maltase/sacrase (invertase)/lactase. (2 x ½ = 1 mark)
E- Foot bath
G- Dip tank
b) Functions of:
E-Contain disinfectant to control foot rot
F- Assist the animals jump into the dip tank
H- Hold animals to enable excess acaricide in animals body to drain to tank
22. State the nutrients lacking in the diet of each animal shown
Animal G – Calcium 1×1 = (1mark)
Animal H – Manganese 1×1=(1mark)
(b) Name the diseases whose symptoms are shown by the animal labeled G above. 1×1 = (1 mk)
- Milk fever
(c) Give two reasons why the disease named in (b) above should not be controlled by giving medicine through the month
- The animal is not able to swallow the medicine
- The medicine may get into the lungs ( 1 x2 = 2mks)
23.(a) E…Hardcore (1mk) F….Damp proof material /PVC (polyvinyl chloride) (1mk)
(b)-Prevents water rising beyond the floor or wall.
-Prevents insects beyond the floor or wall. (2mk)
(c) -sand; – cement (1mk)
SECTION C (40MKRS)
24 . (a) Use of fences in the farm:
• Mark boundaries.
•Help to avoid boundary disputes
• Keep off wild animals and intruders from outside the farm.
• Enable the fanner to practice mixed farming.
• Facilitates rotational grazing
• Controls movement of animals and people preventing formation of unnecessary
paths in the farm.
• Control the spread of parasites and diseases by keeping off wild and stray animals the farm.
• Help the farmer to isolate or confine animals requiring special attention.
• Enable the farmer to control breeding by rearing different animals in different paddocks.
• Hedges act as windbreakers.
• Adds beauty to the farm,
• Add value
• For privacy. ( 10 x 1 = 10 marks)
(b) Newcastle disease. \
(i) • Casual organisms
• virus. (1 x 1 =1 mark)
(ii) Signs of attack:
• Difficult in breathing.
• Beaks remain wide open and necks are strained
• Birds stand with eyes closed all the time.
• Loss of appetite.
• Nasal discharge which force the birds to shake their heads to clear it.
• Birds walk in a staggering motion since the nervous system is affected.
• Often the bird have their heads and wings drooping,
• Birds produce watery greenish diarrhoea.
• Eggs laid have soft shells. ( 1 x 7 = 7 marks)
(iii) Control Measures:
• Vaccination during the first six weeks and then two to three months later.
• Kill the infected birds and burn them.
• Obtain stock from reputable source. (1 x 2 = 2 marks)
25a). Rearing of lambs from lambing to weaning time
-Ensure lamb is breathing
-Ensure lamb is warm
-Ensure mother licks lamb to keep warm & remove mucus 10×1=10mks
-Ensure lamb suckles within 6 hours
– introduce lamb to soft pasture
– provide water
– foot trimming
-Dusting/dipping to control external parasites
b). Causes of livestock diseases
-Amount of food eaten
|-Chew cud -Regurgitate food -Polygastric -Do not have salivary amylase -Saliva is alkaline -Water mainly absorbed in the omasum -Able to digest cellulose in rumen||-Do not chew cud -Do not regurgitate – monogastric –Have salivary amylase -Saliva is neutral -Water is absorbed in the large intestines -Do not digest cellulose|
5 x 1 = marks
26. a. Preventive measures of livestock diseases:
- Isolation of the sick. It’s a preventive measure taken when an animal is suspected to have contracted a disease.
- Imposition of quarantine. This is based on the principle of enclosure in which the affected animals are isolated and their movement restricted, to prevent spread of the disease.
- Use of prophylactic drugs. Include use of coccidiostats in water or food for poultry to control coccidiosis.
- Carrying out regular vaccinations. This is an artificial way of giving an animal immunity against a particular disease.
- Control of vectors. Vectors known to transmit diseases in livestock e.g. tsetse fly and ticks are controlled using appropriate methods.
- Treatment of sick animals. This is done to control spread of diseases.
- Slaughtering the affected animals. Incase of attack by highly infectious and contagious disease, it’s advisable to isolate and slaughter the infected animal.
- Use of antiseptic and dis-infectants. The farmer must ensure cleanliness in animal houses and surroundings. This can be achieved using dis-infectants.
(5 x 2 = 10 Marks)
b. Long term tractor service and maintenance:
- Engine oil should be drained completely from the pump and new oil added.
- The steering gear box should be inspected and refiled if the level is low.
- The oil in the differential should be replaced as recommended.
- The linkage and pully attachment should be greased.
- Pully oil level should be checked and added if necessary.
- Oil filters and fuel filters should be replaced regularly.
(6 x 1 = 6 Marks)
c. Functions of the gear box:
- Helps the driver to select any forward or reverse gear.
- Adjust the speed of the drive from the engine crank shaft to the drive shaft.
- Help to alter the speed ratio.
- Enable the driver to stop the tractor movement without stopping the engine.
- Enable the power from the engine to be more easily applied to the work done by the tractor.
(Any 4 x 1 = 4 Marks)