1. Rinder pest
  2. Foot and Mouth disease
  3. Rabbies
  4. Mad cow disease                                                                                             (½ x 3 = 1½ marks)
  • a)  Spoke shave is used to finish or smoothen curved surfaces                                          (½ mark)

b) Plumb bob-used for checking the verticalness of a wall.                                                   (½ mark)

  • White in colour ,with black ears , nose, paws or tail.                                                (1mark)
  •  – poor health
  • Old age
  • Physical deformities
  • Hereditary defects
  • Infertility/loss of libido                                                                                   (½ x4 = 2marks)
  • Brings loss of hybrid vigour
  • May lead to decline in fertility which lead to species extinction
  • Brings about reduction  in performance
  • Leads to high rate of pre-natal mortality

-abortions                                                                                                                    (½ x2 = 1mark)

  • Make it resistance to redant attack and weather elements
  • Make it resistance to damage
  • Prevent warping                                                                                              (½ x2 = 1mark)
  • a) a roughage is a feed stuff with a high fibre and carbohydrates content and low in protein while a concentrate is a feed with high amount of protein or energy (carbohydrates) and crude fibre.

(award 1 mk and mark as a whole )

b) –it must be balanced /rich in nutrients required

  – Must be enough for the animal to produce at an economical level.

– Must palatable

– digestible

– free from contaminants                                                                                        (4x  ½   = 2mks)

  •          – Depend on
  • species of the animal
  • the breed animal
  • age of animal
  • physiological status of animal
  • temperatures of the environment
  • type of feed eaten
  • weight of animal/body size                                   ( 3x ½    = 1½ mks)
  • To produce high quality milk
  • To have a long lifespan and breed regularly
  • To make it fetch high market values.
  • To reduce managements cost/make it economical to keep/reduce veterinary bills
  • Prevent spread of disease such as these which are zoonotic                   (½ x 3 =  1 ½ mks)
  • To prevent fighting and inflicting injuries on each other
  • To make the animal docile and easy to handle
  • Make it easy during transportation and feeding because it reduce space the animal occupies .
  • Prevent destruction of farm structure

(½ x3 = 1½ mks)

  1. Heat method
  2. Crushing and straining
  3. Use of centrifugal extractor

(½ x2 = 1mk)

  1. a)   -To check fertility of the egg

-To check egg abnormalities

-To determine condition of the embryo

-To check quality of the shell

-To determine the size of air space                                               (2 x1 = 2mks)

            b) Clean plough after days work use

  • tighten loose nuts  and bolts
  • lubricate moving parts
  • replace broken or worn out parts
  • repair broken parts
  • sharpen the sharee when necessary
  • paint the metallic points to avoid rust
  • Apply old engine  oil on the plough for long storage

(4 x ½ = 2mks)

  1. a) Retard growth of animals
  2. leads to malnutrition /emaciation
  3. lower production
  4. diarrhea/constipation
  5. damages to the organs/blindness
  6. blockage or organs/blindness
  7. irritation coughing
  8. cause anaemia
  9. lead to death

(4 x  ½  = 2mks)

b) (i) – to remove dirt /kill bacteria

 – To stimulate  milk let down =

(  ½  x  2   = 1mk)

ii) Saanen

  • toggenberg
  • british alpine/ German Alphine
  • Anglo –nubian

(3 x  ½ =   1½  mk)

  1. Mastitis

Milk fever                                                                                                                   (½  x 2 = 1mk)

  1. A channel used to allow excess water back to the river/ it prevents water from overflowing on the dykes.                                                                                                         ½ mk
  1. – splash feed type
  2. Force feed type
  3. Oil mist type

(½  x 3 =   1 ½ mks)

  1. a) land side-presses against the wall of the furrow hence prevent the plough from swaying sideways  during/provide stability to the plough during ploughing.             (½ mk)

b) Draft rod

– used for adjusting the depth and width of ploughing.  ( ½ mk)

  1. should have properly constructed roof to protect the grains  crop from the sun and rain.
  2. Wall should be plastered with mortar or mud to make them smooth and air light.
  3. Should be completely sealed t avoid entry of rodents.
  4. An inlet  and outlets be made of tight  covers and should be easy to lock.

(½ x3 =    ½ mks)

19.Advantages of natural feeding in calf rearing.

•Calf takes milk at body temperature,

•Milk is free from contamination

• it prevents scouring in calves.

•Milk is provided ad  libitum.                                                             (3 x ½ = 1 ½ marks)


20.       (a)           N   –  abomasum

                           P  – Rumen

                        Q  – Gall bladder                                                                                                  (3  x ½ = 1 /2marks)

        (b. )        S —       Digestion/absorption of food

T-—        Absorption of water.                                                                               (2  x 1 =  2 marks)

(c)              R— Lipase/Trypsin/amyIase

S —   Peptidase/maltase/sacrase (invertase)/lactase.                            (2  x ½  =  1 mark)

21. a)

E-  Foot bath

G- Dip tank

b) Functions of:

E-Contain disinfectant to control foot rot

F- Assist the animals jump into the dip tank

H- Hold animals to enable excess acaricide in animals body to drain to tank

22. State the nutrients lacking in the diet of each animal shown

Animal G – Calcium                                                                                                         1×1  = (1mark)

Animal H – Manganese                                                                                                     1×1=(1mark)

     (b) Name the diseases whose symptoms are shown by the animal labeled G above.              1×1 = (1 mk)

  • Milk fever

     (c) Give two reasons why the disease named in (b) above should not be controlled by giving medicine through the month 

  • The animal is not able to swallow the medicine
  • The medicine may get into the lungs                                                                                ( 1 x2 = 2mks)

23.(a) E…Hardcore  (1mk) F….Damp proof material  /PVC (polyvinyl chloride) (1mk)

(b)-Prevents water rising beyond the floor or wall.

-Prevents insects beyond the floor or wall. (2mk)

(c) -sand; – cement (1mk)                                                                   

          SECTION C (40MKRS)

24 .  (a)    Use of fences in the farm:                                         

             • Mark boundaries.

            •Help to avoid boundary disputes      

            • Keep off wild animals and intruders from outside the farm.

            • Enable the fanner to practice mixed farming.           

            • Facilitates rotational grazing

            • Controls movement of animals and people preventing formation of unnecessary
              paths in the farm.     

            • Control the spread of parasites and diseases by keeping off wild and stray animals the farm.

              • Help the farmer to isolate or confine animals requiring special attention.

          •    Enable the farmer to control breeding by rearing different animals in different            paddocks.

            • Hedges act as windbreakers.

            •  Adds beauty to the farm,

           •    Add value

                                 •   For  privacy.                                                                              ( 10 x 1 = 10 marks)

   (b)     Newcastle disease.     \

             (i)         • Casual organisms

                             • virus.                                                                                         (1  x  1 =1 mark)

 (ii)      Signs of attack:                                            

   • Difficult in breathing.                                                             

  • Beaks remain wide open and necks are strained

  • Dullness.                                                                          

 • Birds stand with eyes closed all the time.                    

 • Loss of appetite.          

 • Nasal discharge which force the birds to shake their heads to clear it.

 • Birds walk in a staggering motion since the nervous system is affected.

•  Often the bird have their heads and wings drooping,

• Birds produce watery greenish diarrhoea.              

                       • Eggs laid have soft shells.                                                                                                         ( 1 x 7 =  7 marks)

   (iii)      Control Measures:

• Vaccination during the first six weeks and then two to three months later.

• Quarantine.                                                                          

• Kill the infected birds and burn them.                               

• Obtain stock from reputable source.                                                       (1  x  2  =  2 marks)            

25a).  Rearing of lambs from lambing to weaning time

-Ensure lamb is breathing

-Ensure lamb is warm

-Ensure mother licks lamb to keep warm & remove mucus             10×1=10mks

-Ensure lamb suckles within 6 hours


– introduce lamb to soft pasture

– provide water

– foot trimming

-Dusting/dipping to control external parasites



b).  Causes of livestock diseases




-Nutritional diseases

-Amount of food eaten

22) c)

-Chew cud -Regurgitate food -Polygastric -Do not have salivary amylase -Saliva is alkaline -Water mainly absorbed in the omasum -Able to digest cellulose in rumen   -Do not chew cud -Do not regurgitate – monogastric –Have salivary amylase -Saliva is neutral -Water is absorbed in the large intestines -Do not digest cellulose  

                                                                                                5 x 1 = marks

26.       a.         Preventive measures of livestock diseases:

  • Isolation of the sick. It’s a preventive measure taken when an animal is suspected to have contracted a disease.
  • Imposition of quarantine. This is based on the principle of enclosure in which the affected animals are isolated and their movement restricted, to prevent spread of the disease.
  • Use of prophylactic drugs. Include use of coccidiostats in water or food for poultry to control coccidiosis.
  • Carrying out regular vaccinations. This is an artificial way of giving an animal immunity against a particular disease.
  • Control of vectors. Vectors known to transmit diseases in livestock e.g. tsetse fly and ticks are controlled using appropriate methods.
  • Treatment of sick animals. This is done to control spread of diseases.
  • Slaughtering the affected animals. Incase of attack by highly infectious and contagious disease, it’s advisable to isolate and slaughter the infected animal.
  • Use of antiseptic and dis-infectants. The farmer must ensure cleanliness in animal houses and surroundings. This can be achieved using dis-infectants.

(5 x 2 = 10 Marks)

            b.         Long term tractor service and maintenance:

  • Engine oil should be drained completely from the pump and new oil added.
  • The steering gear box should be inspected and refiled if the level is low.
  • The oil in the differential should be replaced as recommended.
  • The linkage and pully attachment should be greased.
  • Pully oil level should be checked and added if necessary.
  • Oil filters and fuel filters should be replaced regularly.

(6 x 1 = 6 Marks)

            c.         Functions of the gear box:

  • Helps the driver to select any forward or reverse gear.
  • Adjust the speed of the drive from the engine crank shaft to the drive shaft.
  • Help to alter the speed ratio.
  • Enable the driver to stop the tractor movement without stopping the engine.
  • Enable the power from the engine to be more easily applied to the work done by the tractor.

(Any 4 x 1 = 4 Marks)

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *