- Give two shortcomings of relying on oral traditions as a source of Historical Information. (2 marks)
- Informants may withhold information which makes the source unreliable.
- Information may be exaggerated.
- Omissions of facts due to failure of human memory.
- It may not provide dates or give correct chronology of events.
- Expensive method.
- Time consuming. (2×1 = 2 marks)
2. Give the name of the historical site where the remains of Kenyapithecus were first discovered. (1 mark)
Fort Ternan in Kericho. (1×1 = 1 mark)
3. Give two natural calamities that influenced the migration of the Eastern Cushites into Kenya.
i) Outbreak of diseases that affected both people and livestock.
ii) They were escaping famine and drought/floods.
(2×1 = 2 marks)
4. State the main significance of circumcision in some traditional Kenyan communities.
It marked the end of childhood and the beginning of adulthood.
(1×1 = 1 mark)
5. Mention two factors that facilitated the coming and settlement of the Arabs in the East African Coast. (2 marks)
i) Use of the Monsoon winds.
ii) They had ensured control of the Red Sea to prevent attacks.
iii) Presence of good calling ports in Southern Arabia.
iv) Deep natural harbours at the East African Coast.
v) Arabs were skilled in marine technology.
vi) Accessibility of the East Africa Coast through the Indian Ocean. (3×1 =3
6. State two circumstances under which the Government of Kenya may revoke citizenship acquired through registration. (2 marks)
i) If during war a person trades or gives secrets to the enemy country.
ii) If proven that registration was obtained through fraud/corruption.
iii) If one is sentenced to imprisonment for a period of three years or more within five years after registration.
iv) If one has been convicted of treason or an offence with a penalty of at least seven years imprisonment any time after registration.
(2×1 = 2 marks)
8. Identify two characteristics of a written constitution. (2 marks)
i) Provides a clear guideline in case of crisis/transition.
ii) It is rigid and cannot easily be manipulated.
iii) It is ideal for a newly formed state.
iv) It preserves the identity of diverse ethnic and racial groups.
v) Promotes unity since it is arrived at after thorough consideration by all/A product of consensus.
v) Procedures for its amendments are clearly spelt out.
A special body entrusted with drafting the constitution/must get the approval of the legislature.
(2×1 = 2 marks)
9. Identify two groups of rights entitled to a child in Kenya. (2 marks)
i) Survival rights.
ii) Developmental rights.
iii) Protection rights.
iv) Participation rights.
(2×1 = 2 marks)
10. State two terms of the Anglo-German Agreement of 1886. (2 marks)
i) The Sultan of Zanzibar was given 16 km Coastal strip and the islands of Pate, Mafia, Lamu etc.
ii) The Coastline of Witu and the area between R. Umba and R. Ruvuma became German sphere of influence.
iii) The territory between R. Umba and R. Juba became the British sphere of influence.
(2×1 = 2 marks)
11. State one duty of the British Governor in Kenya during the colonial period. (1 mark)
i) Represented the British government.
ii) Was overall administrator in the colony.
iii) Supervised the provincial administration.
iv) Gave assent to Bills.
v) Appointed/Nominated members of the Legco/and the Executive Council.
(1×1 = 1 mark)
12. Name one political association formed in Kenya before 1939. (1 mark)
i) Kikuyu Association.
ii) East African Association.
iii) Kikuyu Central Association.
iv) Kavirondo Tax Payers Welfare Association/Young Kavirondo Association.
v) Ukamba Members Association.
vi) Coast African Association.
vii) Taita Hissl Associaiton (1×1 = 1 mark)
13. Give two reasons why the Kenya Parliament is regarded as Supreme. (2 marks)
i) It is the main law making organ.
ii) Can check the executive through impeachment and vote of no confidence/ can also reduce powers of the executive through constitutional amendment.
iii) Bills prepared by Cabinet must be legislated in Parliament.
iv) Approves government revenue and expenditure.
v) Cabinet secretaries are accountable to Parliament.
vi) Approves presidential appointments.
(2×1 = 2 marks)
14. State one source of the Nyayo Philosophy. (1 mark)
i) The Biblical teachings of the Ten Commandments.
ii) Sessional Paper No.10 of 1965.
iii) Moi’s long political career.
(1×1 =1 mark)
15. Identify one way in which the government promotes Kenyan culture. (1 mark)
i) Creation of Ministry of Sports, Culture and Gender.
ii) Sponsoring annual Music and Drama Festivals in schools and colleges.
iii) Establishment of Kenya National Theatre, Bomas of Kenya.
iv) Licensing of Art Galleries.
v) Incorporation of oral literature in the education curriculum.
v) Encouraging communities to participate in cultural activities e.g. Bull-fighting.
vi) Sponsoring cultural exchange programmes (1×1 = 1 mark)
16. Name one organ of the County Government. (1 mark)
i) The County Executive Committee.
ii) The County Assembly.
(1×1 = 1 mark)
17. Give one challenge facing the health sector in Kenya today. (1 mark)
- . Due to the rising population the government ability to provide medical amenities has been stretched
- The structural adjustment programmers (SAPs) imposed on developing countries by donor nations like cost sharing has prevented people form going to hospitals
- The spread of HIV/AIDS and other diseases
- Some cultural practices e.g. female genital mutilation
- Poverty and malnutrition render people vulnerable to diseases
- Illegal abortions and pregnancies endanger lives of mothers
- High rate of accidents and injuries especially on roads) Give two recommendations by the presidential working party on the second university In 1982
- Establish the 8-4-4 system of education in Kenya
- The vocational subjects such as art and craft, music, agriculture, home science to be given emphasis in the curriculum (1×1=2mks)
SECTION B (45 Marks)
18a. Three examples of western Bantus
b. Effects of migration and settlement of river lake Nilotes in Kenya upto 19th
i) Intermarriage with neighbors
ii) Assimilation between them and the Luhyia,Nandi,Kisii and Abasuba
- Increase in the population in the region where they settled
- Trading activities increased between them and their neighbours
- Adoption of agriculture alongside pastroralism
- They displaced the western banks and the maasi and the Nandi
Wars/conflicts between the Luos and their neighbours leading deaths and destruction of property
19.a) State three functions of mission stations in Kenya in the 19th Century. (3 marks)
i) They acted as centres of evangelism/churches.
ii) They acted as homes/residential centres of the Missionaries.
iii) They were Centres of imparting Western Education/ schools.
iv) They served as hospitals.
v) They served as homes for the freed slaves.
vi) Accommodation centres for the rejected African converts.
(Any 3×1 = 3 marks)
b. Explain six factors that facilitated missionary activities in Kenya in the 19th century.
i) Support given to the early missionaries by Seyyid Said.
ii) Lack of a dominant religion in the interior as Islam was only practiced at the Coast.
iii) African converts helped in the spread of Christianity and taught the missionaries local languages.
iv) Translation of the Bible into local languages.
v) Use of Kiswahili by the missionaries and the local inhabitants helped overcome language barriers.
vi) Discovery of Quinine encouraged more missionaries to come to Kenya.
- Establishment of colonial government ensured protection of the missionaries.
- The building of the Kenya/Uganda railway enabled missionaries to move into the interior.
(Any 6×2 = 12 marks)
20 (a) Identify three methods used by the British to establish their rule in Kenya.
- Signing treaties between colonial agents and Africans rulers/collaboration.
- Use of military attacks against unfriendly communities/ use of force
- Establishing administrative stations/operational basis.
- Offering gifts to friendly chiefs/treachery.
- Use of missionaries to pacify Africans through preaching.
Any 3×1=3 marks
(b) Explain six results of the Nandi resistance against British occupation. (12 marks)
- The land belonging to the Nandi was alienated for white settlement.
- The Nandi lost their independence as the British established their rule.
- The Nandi were resettled in reserves where they could not carry out their farming activities.
- They were forced to live as squatters on European farms where they provided cheap labour.
- There was massive loss of life as the British forces raided/carried our punitive expeditions.
- The Nandi lost property which was either destroyed or confiscated by the British.
- The Nandi lost their military superiority in the region as they were subdue by the British.
- The Nandi warriors were conscripted into the colonial security forces.
21. (a) Identify three types of landholdings in Kenya. (3 marks)
- Public land
- Community land
- Private land
(3 x 1 = 3 marks)
(b) Explain six political challenges that have faced post-independent Kenya. (12 marks)
- One party dictatorship introduced in 1982.
- Multipartism which was introduced in 1992.
- Political assassinations of Pio Gama Pintoo, JM Kariuki, Tom Mboya, Robert Ouko etc
- Ethnic clashes
- Post election violence of 2007.
- Political detention and torture.
- Attempted military coup of 1982.
- Gender inequality in leadership
- Age / Generation struggle for leadership.
- Border conflicts from neighbouring countries e.g. Uganda.
- Formation of militia groups eg Shifta and Al-Shabaab
- Leadership wrangles / ideological differences.
- Manipulation of the constitution by the members of parliament.
(6 x 2 = 12 marks)
SECTION C (30 MRKS)
22a)Three ways in which the constitution promotes national unity (3mrks)
- Recognizes the right own to property and live anywhere in the county
- Contains various rights and freedoms of all Kenya Bill of rights
- Applies equally to all Kenyans (Any 3×1)
b) Importance of national integration in Kenya (12mrks)
- Enhances national development
- Promotes development of national unity
- Promotes peaceful co-existence
- Gives the county a sense of National direction
- Reduces fees and pour struggle which can lead to uses.
- Promotes collective responsibility during time of need eg famine. Any 6 x 2
23(a)Give three functions of a constitution
- Protects rights and fundamental freedoms of a citizen and define their responsibilities
- It is the basis upon which the government is established
- Defines the relationship between the governor and the governed
- Spells out the legal framework from which the law the country is made
- Promote national unity (3×1=3mks)
(b)Describe the key stages in the constitution making process in Kenya
- Debating over contentious issues
- Collection of public views
- Civic education
- Convening of constitutional conferences
- Drafting of the constitution
- Enacting of the constitution
- Promulgation of the constitution (6×2=12mks),NB: Any six in an order
24a) Three conditions one must fulfill to be declared as a winner in the presidential election in Kenya (3mrks)
- 50% plus one vote on top of 25% of votes in 24 countries
- Simple majority in case of re- run / round two of elections
- No election petition after elections Any 3×1
(b) Explain six powers and functions of the president in Kenya.
- As head of state s/he represents the people of Kenya locally and internationally.
- The president has appointive role: deputy president in addition nominates senior officers such as cabinet secretaries. Attorney General, Director of Public prosecution, the secretary of the cabinet, principal secretaries, high commissioners ambassadors with the approval of the National assembly.
- The president addresses the opening of each newly elected parliament and also addresses special sittings of the parliament
- The president chairs cabinet meetings
- President is the commander-in-chief of the Kenya Defence forces
- The president may exercise power of mercy with the advice of advisory committee
- The president may also confer honours to people
The president presides over national holidays Any 6 x 2