1. –     Creation theory

(1 x 1 =1mk)

  • –     Austrolopithecus, Homo habilis

(1 x 1 = 1mk)

  • –     Mesopotamia – Hieroglyphics, Egypt – Cuneiform

(2 x 1 = 2mks)

  • –     Gold, clothes , cowries shells , iron , copper

(2 x 1 = 2mks)

  •  –    Rafts, canoes, Dhows, Oar  boats

(2 x 1 = 2mks)

  • –     To announce take over of a new ruler

–     Summarizing people to important meetings

–     Calling warriors to war

–     Announcing commencement of various ceremonies

(Any two 2 x1 = 2mks)

  • –     Were taught to be resistant to many diseases

–     Were readily available in large numbers

–     Were cheaper to use than Europeans or red Indians

–     Were taught to be adaptable to hot and humid tropical climate

(1 x 1 = 1mk)

  • –     Imperial British East Africa Company

–     German East Africa Company

(1 x1 = 1mk)

  • –     Renaissance time made people develop interest in research/ learning

–     Governments and individual financed scientific research

–     Need to solve problems like food shortages, diseases

–     Religion failed to answer all questions

(Any 2 x 1 = 2mks)

  1. –     Collected taxes

–     Planned wars

–     Informed Kabaka about war

–     Planned public works

–     Protected Kabaka

(2 x 1 = 2mks)

  1. –     Sign of unity (unifying factor)

(1 x 1 = 1mk)

  1. –     Signing treaties among themselves

–     Organizing the Berlin conference to lay down guiding principles

      of partition                                                                             (2 x 1 = 2mks)

  1. –     Angola

–     Mozambique

–     Portuguese Guinea

(2 x 1 =2mks)

  1. –     The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

(IBRD) or World Bank

     –      The International Monetary Fund(IMF)

(1 x 1 = 1mk)

  1. –     The bombing Hiroshima and Nagasaki with atomic bomb by the USA

(1 x1 = 1mk)

  1. –     Co-ordinates activities of liberation movements against colonization

In Africa

(1 x 1 = 1mk)

  1. –     War saw pact.

–     North Atlantic treaty organization (NATO)

(1 x 1= 1mk)


  1. a)- Homo – Erectus

–     Homo – Sapiens

–     Homo Sapiens sapiens

(3 x 1 = 3mks)

     b) – Made tools and weapons (Acheullian tools)

        –   Lived in caves and tree –tops

        –   Hairy body kept them warm

       –    Ate raw meat, fruits, vegetables, insects and roots

       –    Lived in small groups

      –     Used gestures

     –      Division of labour

     –      Hunted animals

(6 x 2 = 12mks)

  1. a)- High number of accidents on roads leads to lose of life

–     Pollution caused by exhaust fumer

–     The use of roads is limited to specific areas i.e  cannot go beyond land.

–     Construction of all weather roads is expensive

–     Due to increased number of vehicles on roads traffic congestion is a

major concern in most cities and towns

     –      When roads become impassable especially those that are not all weather roads

    –       The quantity of goods carried is limited as roads cannot carry bulky goods compared

            to the railway

                                                                                                                        (3 x 1  = 3mks)

b) –      Improved communication

    –       Mass entertainment

    –       Education of the public through media

    –       In the transport of ship at sea and Aeroplane in the air co-ordinates

through telecommunication.

     –      Exploration of outer space – satellites sent to space send information

     –      Cultural imperialism

     –      Promotes national unity

     –      Provides employment

(6 x 2 = 12mks)

  • a) – Direct rule

 –    Assimilation

–     Indirect rule

–     Association

(Any 3 x1 = 3mks)

   b) –   Bulozi lost their independence to the British

      –     The Lozi aristocracy was broken and the royal class was reduced

only to the position of tax collectors on behalf of BSAC

      –     Barotseland was incorporated into Northern Rhodesia

     –      Bulozi got the British protection against their enemies Ndebele

    –       Though with less power, Lewanika was made a paramount chief

     –      Led to introduction of western education and development of

infrastructure in Barotseland                                                                        (6 x2 = 12mks)

  • a) – Guerrilla warfare

–     Through press which articulated African grievances

–     Formation of associations

–     Strikes against forced labour  and poor working conditions in 1947 and 1956

–     Formation of political parties like FRELIMO, UDENAMO,UNAM and MANU

–     Civil education from FRELIMO

b)  –     Internal division due to ideological differences and selfish ambitions

     –      Apartheid regime in South Africa and unilateral Declaration of independence in

            S. Rhodesia joined forces with Portuguese against FRELIMO.

    –       Competition from rural guerilla movements such as Revolutionary Committee of


–       Attack of FRELIMO from the church claiming that it was a terrorist organization, thus many church followers were reluctant to join.

–       Asassination of Eduardo Mondlane in Dar-es salam in February 3rd 1969 demotivated the Africans from active nationalist struggle.

–       Shortage of basic needs among the Africans in the initial stages of the war.

–       Portuguese used ruthless and cruel methods in suppressing the FRELIMO supporters such as massacre of 400 civilians at Wiriyamu in December 1972.

(6 x 2 = 12mks)


  • a) – They desired to control the economy of Zimbabwe

–     Local political institutions based on Induna system had been destroyed during the British occupation of Zimbabwe.

–     To ensure complete control of African to end African resistance

–     Company officials in the area were familiar with the area and British system of administration.

–     Adequate finance for administration from the colony.

–     Adequate personnel from the white settlers

(3 x1 = 3mks)

b) –      School system did not do much to indoctrinate the Africans sufficiently of values

of the policy.

    –       It was an expensive policy to implement and maintain.

    –       The policy was only confined in the four communes while the rest was left untouched.

    –       The system faced opposition from the Muslim.

    –       Cultural disparity that existed between African and the French

 e.g Africans were polyganists.

    –       Racial discrimination the French resented the idea of equally with

Africans in parliament.

  –         The African chief were hostile to the policy because it reduced their power

and authority were undermined.

  –         Increased desertification from African elites who were elected to the

French parliament.

  –         Differences between French legal system and African customs.

  –         It was unworkable due to high standards and difficult conditions expected for

one to be assimilated.

   –        Rise of Nationalism which undermined the policy.

( 6 x 2 = 12mks)

  • a) – USA

–     France

–     Russia

–     China

(3 x 1 = 3mks)

    b) –  Ideological difference between capitalist USA and the communist USSR

       –    Arms race and failure of the two powers to agree on arm reduction plan.

       –    Economic rivalry and formation of marshal plan by USA and COMECON by USSR

       –    Formation of military alliances and military support to opponents enemies.

       –    Use of Russian veto powers in the UN to defeat UN proposal.

     –      Differences over Germany as UN Allies wanted a strong Germany to assist in

            Economic prosperity in other UN European nations while the soviet union wanted a

            Politically weak Germany

(6 x 2 = 12mks)

  • a) – The summit of Heads of States

–     The council of ministers

–     Co-ordinating committee

–     Sectoral committee

–     East Africa court of justice

–     East Africa legislative Assembly

–     The secretariat

(3 x 1 = 3mks)

b) –      The civil society is cooperating with a view of enhancing its role in different fields.

    –       Improved diplomatic relations

   –        EAC promotes trade

   –        Professionals are able to interact more easily

   –        Tariffs for industrial goods have been reduced while investment procedures eased

    –       Introduction of the EA passports and opening of the borders has made it easy for

            Citizens to move across the border

   –        Improvement and expansion of transport and communication networks

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