1.         (a)        Minerals occur in the following ways.

                        –           Some occur in Beds, seams and layers.

                        –           Some occur as weathered products.

                         –          Some occur   in veins and loads.

                        –           Some occur as alluvial deposits.

                        –           Some occur as evaporates.                                                     (any 3×1  =3mks)

            (b)       Types of underground mining.

                        –           Deep shaft method.

                        –           Solution method/  hydraulic.

                        –           Adit / drift mining.                                                                                         (any 2)

2.         (a)       A forest is continuous and extensive  land covered with a closed stand of tall trees,

usually of commercial value.                                                                                    (1mk)

            (b)       Characteristics of tropical hardwood forests.

                        –           The forest are evergreen.

                        –           The trees are tall with straight smooth trunks and form extensive canopies.

                        –           The trunks are  large  in size and bulky with protruding giant buttess roots which

makes the trees difficult to cut and hull.

                        –           They take a very long time to mature.(65-75yrs)                        (any 2×1=2mks)

            (c)        The main softwood tree species planted in Canada.

                        –           Pine

                        –           Spruce

                        –           Forg                                                                                         (any 2×1=2mks)

3.         (a)        Non-renewable sources of energy  are likely to  be exhausted  if not carefully used /

extracted.                                                                                                                    ( 1mk)

            (b)       Non-renewableenergy sources.

                         –          Fossils fuels.

                        –           River water.                                                                                                    (2mks)

            (c)        –           Loss of aesthetic  valley /  the environment looks ugly.

                        –           Causes soil erosion because trees are cut down.

                        –           Air pollution (increase in the amount of carbon content in air)

                        –           Reduces visibility (smoke)                                                     (any 2×1=2mks)

4.         (a)        A trading bloc is where countries in the same geographical region join to form / team up to 

form a trade and  economic organization.                                                                  (2mks)

            (b)       Factors influencing  trade.

                        –           Availability of capital

                         –          Availability of goods and services.

                         –          There must be good security.

                        –           Demand of goods.

                        –           Availability of transport.                                                        (any 3 x1=3mks)

5.         (a)        Pre-historic sites  popular with tourists in Kenya.

                        –           Kariandusi near Gilgil.

                        –           Olorgesailie near Magadi.

                         –          The shores of Lake Turkana.                                                  (any 2×1= 2mks)

            (b)       –           Uganda Wildlife Authority. (UWA)

                        –           Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS)

                        –           Tanzania Wildlife Trust ( TWT)                                                                    ( 3mks)


 6.        (a)        (i)

DISTRICT 2008 CT2009CT2010CT2011 CT
TRANS- NZOIA WEST150150175175180180 200200
TRANS-NZOIA EAST25175302052520928228
KWANZA10185 20225 3023532260



(ii)       Two conclusions from the bar graph.

                                    –           2011 had the highest population in the country

                                    –           2008  had the lowest population.

                                    –           The population  was increasing year after year.

                                    –           Trans-Nzoia West had the highestpopulation  throughout the period.

                                    –           Kwanza  had the lowest population throughout the period. (any2x1=2mks)

            (b)       Three  factors causing internal migration in Kenya.

–           Pressure on land – Districts that are densely populated egKisii, Nyamira,               Kakamega, Vihiga, Kiambu  andNyeri  do not offer enough farmland for the  increasing population resulting to reduced food supplies hence some  members of the population  have opted to  buy land elsewhere where  they eventually settled.

–           Better employment opportunities –  School  leavers usually  move to urban areas  in search of Jobs. People also move from one town to another to search for better paying  jobs .Some people move from one  farm to another  to provide labour and some settle in these farms as squatters.

–           Calamities – Occurrence of delisasterseg diseases,  floods and drought have forced people to move to new places  to get solace .Kerio plains and  lower Tana and Nzoia rivers (Budalangi) suffer from periodic floods  forcing people to move and only to come back when floods subside.

–           Warfare – Tribal clashes  in Kenya  causes Temporary and sometimes  permanent migration for  instance during  the 2007 general election disagreement , there was warfare in some parts of Rift valley where people were internally displaced.

–           Government policies – whenever the government sets up a project  people are displaced and settled else where like  when the government started to mine Titanium in Kwale District ,  people were settled elsewhere. ( any 3 factors 3mks ) (3 explained 3mks=6mks)

            (c)        (i)        Three factors leading to slow population growth  in  some parts of East Africa.

–           Warfare – civil wars leads to  many people  being killed(woman and children) and  other people move to safer places eg the civil war  which occured in Uganda.

–           Epidemics – when  epidemics and diseases strike an area  the rate of child death is high e g  malaria. typhoid  and measles  kills children in some parts  of East Africa  leading to slow  population growth.

–           Famine – Large parts of Kenya regularly experience food shortages due to prolonged drought .Hunger  kills children and very old people and the affected population is weakened and fertility rate lowered and do  not contribute to population increase  eg Turkana district.

–           Family planning practices – many family in EA have adopted family planning and have  one or two children and this has contribute to slow population growth.

–           Late marriages – most people are going to  school  and study for many years  until they complete college and begin working. This has greatly reduced the number of children such people gets.

–           Emmigration – Youth move and settle to other places away from their home affecting population negatively.

–           Social cultural factors – large families suffered from reduced number of children per woman because of high  mortality rates among infants and children.Some customs  in East Africa embrace abstention from intercourse, prolonged breat feeding and sending the wife away from the   husband until  the child was three   and  four years old leads to slow population growth.                                                 (any 3×2=6mks)

            (c)        (ii)       –           Readily available  labour.      

                                    –           Utilization of the  available  natural resources fully

                                    –           Offer readily available  market for goods .

                                    –           Increase in the countriesGDP  if the population is engaged in gainful

employment.                                                                           (any2x1=2mks)

7.         (a)        (i)        Major towns where oil palm is grown in Nigeria

                                    –           Ibadan

                                    –           Onitsha

                                    –           Calabar                                                                                   (any2x1=2mks)

(ii)       –           Temperature – The temperatures in Nigeria are high (over 210c)

Throughout the year and also the sunshine is plenty during ripening.

–           Rainfall – The rainfall received in Nigeria is over 2000 mm and well distributed  throughout the year.

–           Humidity – The in high relative humidity in Nigeria is over 2000mm and well distributed throughout the year.

–           Soils – The soils in Nigeria are well drained and porous and rich in humusfavoring  the growth of oil palm.

–           Windbreaks – There are many trees in Nigeria acting as windbreaks.

–           Relief – The relief in Nigeria  is undulating favouring growth of oil palm.

                                                                                                (any 4×2=8mks)

(b)       The branches of oil palm fruits are transported by  lorries or light trains to the pioneer mills. At  the mills the branches are put tube -like cages  with holes all  round. The cages run on rails  and enter a sterilizer where  the fruits are cooked by hot stream. Boiling and sterilizing ensures that the oil in the fruit  does not chance to fully acids.  After  the fruits have been cooked they are removed from the   cages and placed on a conveyor belt which moves to a stupper . In the stupper the fruits are shaken off  the stalks. They are then put in digesters and cooked depulping  is  done in which  the pericarp pulp  is separated from the  nut. The pulp is pressed to remove oil. The oil is left  to  settle in tanks  for some time so that  the impurities settle at the bottom  of the tank. The  nuts are put in grinders which  cracks them to remove  the  kernels. The kernels  may be  pressed to produce kernel oil or they  may be parked whole and exported  for the importing countries.

( 8mks)

            (c)        (i)        –           Plants attacked by pests  and diseases eg anthracnose , freckle, blast

                                    –           Shortage of capital.

                                    –           Shortage of food due to  overdependence  on oil palm.

                                    –           Lack of  skills and knowledge  in production of oil palm.

                                    –           Neglegence  by the government        

                                    –           Competition from other  producing  countries.                    (any4x1=4mks)

                        (ii)       Uses of palm oil.

                       –           Cooking

–           Manufactureof  soap

–           Manufacture of margarine

–           Domestic cooking

–           Lighting

–           Manufacture of cosmetics

–           Thatching houses /  making baskets,  mats and brooms. (any 3×1=3mks)

8.         (a)        (i)        Pelagic fish are fish communities that  mainly  live near the surface or at shallows

depths of lakes and seas.                                                                                 (2mks)

(ii)       Two examples of pelagic fish.

                                    –           Herring

                                    –           Mackerel

                                    –           Sandines

                                    –           Tuna                                                                            (any 2×1=2mks)

            (b)       (i)        J- Lake Malawi

                                    K- R. Nile

                                    L- R.Tana

                                    M – L. Turkana                                                                                               (4mks)

                        (ii)       Solution  to problems facing  inland fishing  in East Africa.

–           Inadequate capital – The  government and local financial  insituations  should make funds  available  for fisher men  to assist them purchase  fishing equipment , refrigeration  facilities  and transport vans.

 –          Presence of dangerous animals-  The  KWS,UWN & TNT to capture the menacing animals and take them to the parks.

 –          Overfishing – Ban the  use of nets  with  small  meshes; license fishermen and start fish farms to reduce reliance  of natural fishing grounds.

–           Pollution of water bodies – Government to  set up tough measures against pollution  industries and towns to treat their  effluents  before  releasing them in rivers and lakes.

–           Inadequate transport – To develop roads  leading to  fresh water  lakes to help them open  up  the market.

–           Introduction of new species – T o discourage the introduction of Nile perch  in other fresh water lakes.

–           Presence of weeds – Local communities and the government to remove the  weeds from the lakes.

–           Limited market-  more people to be encouraged to eat fish.

–           Accidents – Fishermen to use bigger motorboats  which can withstand storm.

–           Lack of fish co-orperatives – Fishermen to form cooperative societies to find market.

–           Lack of electricity – The government to supply power to fishing areas.

                                                                                                          Any 4well explained x2=8marks

(c)        Namibian coast fishing grounds  is not well  developed because .

                        –           Poor technology hence lack items  like fishing vessels and other machinery.

                        –           Shortage of capital for paying workers and buying machinery.

                        –           Insecurity – civil war in Nambia and Angola resulting in abandonment  of fishing.

                        –           Narrow continental shelf that does not favour flourishing   of planktons.

                                                                                                            (any 3 well explained x2 =6mks)

            (d)       Comparison between Fishing in Kenya and Japan.

                        (i)        Market

                                    High population with fish eating culture offers a ready market for fishing in

                                    Japan while in Kenya most fishing grounds are found in remote areas with low

                                    Population which do not offer ready market.                                                 (2mks)

                        (ii)       Nature of the landscape

                                    Japan is made up of numerousislands  which do not favor agriculture hence

                                    fishing is the  alternative economic activity while Kenya the landscape  is gently

                                    sloping and generally flat topography supporting agriculture and people neglect 

                                    fishing.                                                                                                            (2mks)

9.         (a)        (i)        Land Rehabilitation is the process of recovery of land which has been misused and

                                    destroyed through human activities such as quarrying, overgrazing, deforestation,

                                    Charcoal burning and over cultivation.                                                          (2mks)

                        (ii)       Four benefits of land Rehabilitation in Kenya.

                                     –          Increase in the amount of food production.

                                    –           Modification of climate.

                                    –           Reduces the rate of mosquito breeding that spread malaria because open

                                                ditches are filled.

                                    –           It controls soil erosion because trees are planted.

                                    –           Increase in the amount of land for settlement.      (any 4×1=4mks)

            (b)       (i)        Factors which led to the successful establishment of Perkerre  irrigation scheme.

                                    –           To control the seasonal floods  of river Perkerra  which  used to devastate    

                                                the area.

                                    –           To utilize the excess water of river Perkerra which used to go to waste?

                                    –           Presence of flat and gentle sloping terrain which enables easy flow of water

                                                by gravity.

                                    –           The fertile loamy soil deposited  by floods reduces the use of fertilizers.

                                    –           The dry conditions of the area  necessitated  use of irrigation as the only

                                                way to  make food production possible.(any 4 well  explained x2 =8mks)

                        (ii)       –           Acute shortage of water.

                                    –           Siltation of canals.

                                    –           Inadequate supply of  labour.

                                    –           Inadequate capital

                                    –           Limited market.

                                    –           Human diseases eg malaria and bilhazia

                                    –           Poor  payment of farm produce.                                 (any 3×1=3mks)

                        (iii)      Crops grown in Perkerra  irrigationscheme include water  melons, onions, cotton

                                    chillies and  pawpaws.                                                            (any 4×1=4mks)

            (c)        Advantages  of irrigation farming to the economy of Kenya.

                        –           Offers employment to people  improving their  living.

                        –           Surplus is sold to earn the country foreign exchange.

                        –           Increase in food production for the country to sustain  itself.

                        –           Utilization of the  unproductive land.

                        –           Utilization of  products from  other industries / offers market for goods from

                                    industries.                                                                               (any 4×1=4mks)


10.a)(i)   Differentiate between market gardening and floriculture.

  • Market gardening is the intensive cultivation of vegetables and fruits for sale in the nearest urban centre while floriculture is the cultivation of flowers for sale.            1×2 =  2mks

(ii)                    State four features of horticulture.

  • Small farms
  • Located near communication lines
  • Land is intensively farmed.
  • Continuous application of manure and fertilizers.
  • Located near urban centers.
  • Are scientifically managed.                                                                 4 x 1 = 4mks

b. (i)   State three physical factors that favour development of horticulture in Kenya.

  • Abundant supply of water from lakes and rivers.
  • Gentle slopes to facilitate construction of green houses.
  • Warm temperatures that favour growing of horticulture products.
  • Well drained soils.
  • Volcanic soils / deep soils.                                                                  3 x 1 = 3mks

ii)       Explain why horticulture is more developed in Netherlands than in Kenya.

1Has higher demand for horticultural productsHas low demand of horticulture products
2Farmers have access to capital needed for horticulture farmingFarmers have low capital needed for horticultural farming
3Very high technologyPoor technology
4Well developed transport networkUnder developed transport network
5Has highly skilled labourInadequate skilled labor in production
6There is more research into suitable methods for horticultural farmingIn adequate research
7Has well organized marketing systems/ cooperatives which are favourable for horticultural farmingIs under development marketing systems

                                                                                                                                     4 x 2 = 8 mks

c)    States and explain four contributions of horticulture to the economy of Kenya.

  • Earns foreign exchange from export.
  • Creation of employment.
  • Raw materials for industries e.g processing of fruits.
  • Enhances development of roads/transport.
  • Source of food to the population.
  • Provision of social amenities in the growing areas.
  • Source of income to the farmers when sold.
  • Encourages land reclamation.

                                                                                                                        4 x 2 = 8mks

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